Culture Conscious

Briefings on Culture, Cognition, and Behavior
Wiley (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 25. Januar 2021
  • Buch
  • |
  • Softcover
  • |
  • 256 Seiten
978-1-119-67718-5 (ISBN)
Discover cultural psychology with this up-to-date introductory text full of bite-sized briefings perfect for undergraduate students

Culture Conscious: Briefings on Culture, Cognition, and Behavior delivers an insightful treatment of 46 different topics in the cross-cultural study of perception, cognition, personality, social behavior, health and moral reasoning. These stand-alone briefings are ideal for instructors who wish to assign individual topics without requiring their students to read an entire textbook.

The book presents the newest findings from cross-cultural psychology on both general topics, like cultural dimensions and methodological issues, and more specific subjects, like a 2015 study that compared the definitions of "fairness" used b children in Germany and rural Namibia.

Split into 11 units that correspond roughly to chapter topics in more typical introductory psychology textbooks, the book contains briefings of roughly 700 to 1000 words each. Every briefing is written in an accessible and practical style for readers who have no background in psychology, research methods or statistics. The book also contains:

A fulsome exploration of cross-cultural human experience, as opposed to the token "multiculturalism" and "diversity" content that has been added to competing textbooks.

A strong counterbalance to the tendency for psychological research to involve participants from western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic countries.

"Bite sized" and curated research packaged specifically for easy student consumption and learning

A selection of studies that undergraduate students will find interesting, relevant and accessible.

Perfect for undergraduate students taking courses in introductory or cross-cultural psychology, multicultural counseling, psychological anthropology, international relations, and intercultural communication. Culture Conscious will also earn a place in the libraries of business educators who wish to implement an international or intercultural component in their curriculum.
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Höhe: 251 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 205 mm
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  • Dicke: 10 mm
  • 444 gr
978-1-119-67718-5 (9781119677185)
Why I Wrote This Book xiii

About the Author xvii

Chapter 1 Conceptual Tools 1

Introduction 1

Briefing 1. Unpacking Culture 3

Arriving at a consensus definition of "culture" is less important than identifying the active ingredients in culture that shape and direct our thoughts and actions. 3

Briefing 2. Differences Between and Differences Within 7

The differences between cultural groups are almost always smaller than the differences within cultural groups. Why is that important? 7

Briefing 3. Is the World Becoming More Individualistic? 11

Americans are, on average, becoming more individualistic. But what about people in other countries? Are historically collectivistic countries such as China becoming more individualistic? 11

Briefing 4. Like Pants, Some Countries Are Tighter Than Others 16

Would you like to live in a place where people can sing and kiss and even curse in public? If so, consider Estonia and Brazil, but cross Pakistan and Singapore off your list. 16

Briefing 5. What Can a Cow, Chicken, and Grass Tell Us About How We Think? 21

Researchers use verbal triads and other tasks to assess the degree to which a person is an analytic thinker or a holistic thinker. 21

Chapter 2 Methodological Considerations 25

Briefing 6. Making Psychology Less "WEIRD" 27

Our knowledge of human psychology is based largely on studies of people who live in Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic societies. That's a problem, but cross-cultural researchers have a solution. 27

Briefing 7. Why Behavioral Scientists Conduct Cross-Cultural Studies 33

When the generalizability of a theory is in question, or two variables are inextricably linked at home, it's time to go abroad. 33

Briefing 8. Geographical Psychology and the Seductive Allure of Psychological Atlases 38

Researchers who investigate spatial patterns of psychological phenomena sometimes present their findings in a psychological atlas, a kind of map that can conceal as much as it reveals. 38

Briefing 9. Does Speaking a Second Language Make You Smarter? 44

Studies have found that people who speak more than one language appear to possess superior cognitive ability, but at least one psychologist thinks the "bilingual advantage" is a suspect phenomenon. The alleged culprit? Publication bias. 44

Chapter 3 Intercultural Communication 48

Introduction 48

Briefing 10. Communication Styles in Estonia and the United States 50

Estonians describe themselves as reserved, modest, and quiet. What happens when an outgoing American lives and works with reserved Estonians? 50

Briefing 11. Study Abroad and Intercultural Competence 55

Does an international educational experience improve one's ability to interact effectively with people who are culturally different? It's a straightforward question that's more difficult to test than you might think. 55

Briefing 12. Reading People's Faces and Between the Lines 60

Might the First Gulf War have never happened if negotiators for the United States and Iraq had better understood each other's cultural norms? And why are some cultural groups less expressive emotionally than others? 60

Briefing 13. How to Respond to a Cultural Incident 66

Has a cross-cultural encounter ever left you feeling confused, irritated, and embarrassed? A few simple steps can help you successfully navigate "the unfamiliar" when interacting with someone who is culturally different. 66

Chapter 4 Perceptual Processes 71

Introduction 71

Briefing 14. How Carpentered Is Your World? 73

Compared to city dwellers who see hundreds of right angles every day, people who grow up in "uncarpentered" societies are less susceptible to a famous perceptual illusion. 73

Briefing 15. Do You See a Smiling Face? (^_^) 78

Researchers have known for years that happy and sad facial expressions are easily recognized by people around the world. Is the same true for happy and sad emoticons? 78

Briefing 16. I'm New Here. Did I Arrive Too Early? 83

People in different parts of the world have different understandings of what it means to be early and late. How we partition the minutes in an hour may explain cultural differences in punctuality. 83

Briefing 17. Eyewitnessing and "They All Look Alike to Me" 88

Maybe you've heard someone say, "How should I know if I've seen the guy before? They all look alike to me." We may be inclined to think the clueless person is a racial bigot, yet multiple studies suggest a different conclusion. 88

Chapter 5 Cognitive Processes 92

Introduction 92

Briefing 18. I Forgot Your Phone Number Because It Has So Many Syllables 94

How easily can people memorize a string of numbers or a series of color names? The answer depends, in part, on the language they speak. 94

Briefing 19. Can a Westerner Think Like an East Asian? 98

Most Westerners are analytic thinkers, and most East Asians are holistic thinkers. Is it possible for someone to adopt the cognitive style used by people who live halfway around the world? 98

Briefing 20. Is "Before" to the Left or Right of "After"? 102

Our inclinations about where to locate time-related events in space are shaped by cultural values and language. 102

Briefing 21. Experiencing the World Inside-Out or Outside-In 107

Cultural variations in perspective-taking reveal fundamental differences in personal motives and conceptions of self. 107

Briefing 22. Do People Everywhere Experience Cognitive Dissonance in the Same Way? 112

Acting in a way that contradicts a cherished belief produces a state of mental tension and discomfort. Does one's cultural background play a role in this process? 112

Chapter 6 Human Development and Individual Differences 117

Introduction 117

Briefing 23. Are the Twos Terrible Everywhere? 119

Maybe parenting a toddler doesn't have to be such an ordeal - and autocratic parenting might not be as bad as it sounds. 119

Briefing 24. Are Young People Growing Up More Slowly? 124

Recent studies have established links between cultural individualism, the delayed development of a mature personality, and the postponement of adulthood. 124

Briefing 25. Solving the Puzzle of National Differences in Self-Esteem 129

Studies consistently find that people in some countries report higher levels of self-esteem than people in other countries. Less well understood are the reasons for these differences. 129

Briefing 26. Are Muslim Arabs Especially Fatalistic? 134

Commentators claim that Arabs and Muslims believe that what happens in life is predetermined, in the hands of God, and beyond their control. Are the commentators' claims valid? 134

Chapter 7 Health and Well-Being 138

Introduction 138

Briefing 27. Emotions, Culture, and Heart Disease 140

Being angry at other people predicts poor health outcomes in the United States but good health outcomes in Japan. How can that be? 140

Briefing 28. Do American Parents Overreport Symptoms of ADHD? 144

A recent study found that parents in Australia and the United States were more likely than parents in Norway and Sweden to report symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in their young children. Now researchers want to know why. 144

Briefing 29. Witchdoctors and Psychiatrists 148

The psychotherapeutic techniques used by Western mental health professionals and native healers look very different on the surface. At their root, though, they draw upon the same fundamental principles. 148

Briefing 30. How Much Is Enough? 153

In an ideal world, we would all choose to be maximally happy, healthy, and free. Right? Not according to a recent study of people's preferences in 27 nations. 153

Chapter 8 Social Behavior 157

Introduction 157

Briefing 31. The World at 7:00 P.M. 159

Behavioral scientists know how to measure and describe the characteristics of individuals, but can they measure and describe the characteristics of situations? In 2016, thousands of volunteers in 20 nations used a new tool to describe what they did the night before. 159

Briefing 32. Do Americans Conform More Than People in Other Countries? 164

Researchers have replicated Solomon Asch's classic study in 17 countries and discovered large cultural differences in levels of conformity. 164

Briefing 33. Southern Comfort 169

Why are Southerners in the United States so polite? In cultures of honor, people protect their reputation by avenging insults and slurs, so it pays to be courteous to others. 169

Briefing 34. Cities Where Tourists Are More Likely to Receive Help 173

If misfortune comes your way while traveling abroad, will you be most likely to receive help from a passerby in Amsterdam, Kuala Lumpur, or Rio de Janeiro? 173

Briefing 35. Are Americans as Obedient as People in Other Countries? 178

The results of a notorious psychological experiment suggest that most Americans will obey an authority figure who tells them to shock another person. Are people in other countries equally obedient? 178

Chapter 9 Moral Reasoning 183

Introduction 183

Briefing 36. That's Not Fair! 185

Where do standards of fairness come from? Are they a human universal, part of some evolutionary adaptation that supports cooperation? Or are they cultural norms, imprinted upon young impressionable minds? 185

Briefing 37. Japan Is a Loser's Paradise 190

Picture yourself in a large city. You lose your wallet, cell phone, or something else of value. Statistics show you have a much better chance of recovering the item in Tokyo than in New York City. The question is why. 190

Briefing 38. Why People Everywhere Cheat (But Only a Little) 194

Are you 100% honest all the time? Probably not, but don't worry. You're in good company. Researchers have documented low levels of cheating in 18 countries on four continents. 194

Briefing 39. Do We Feel Less When Thinking in a Foreign Language? 199

When people think in a foreign language, they're more likely to make rational gambling decisions and utilitarian moral judgments, but the reasons why were unclear until now. 199

Chapter 10 Living in a Multicultural World 203

Introduction 203

Briefing 40. What Happens When a Foreigner Adopts an Anglo Name? 205

When Chinese students come to the United States, they sometimes use an Anglicized name. Will they, as a result, experience less discrimination? Or might they lose part of their cultural identity? 205

Briefing 41. The Importing and Exporting of Mental Disorders 209

The evidence is clear: A psychiatric illness can spread, like a virus, from one part of the world to another. What is less clear is how it happens and how often it happens. 209

Briefing 42. Why Are So Many Spelling Bee Champions Indian Americans? 214

Indian American youngsters have dominated the Scripps National Spelling Bee since 1999. Do cultural beliefs about the changeability of intelligence lead to success in academic competitions? 214

Briefing 43. How to Win an Argument with Your Political Opponent 218

In the culture wars, it's difficult to change people's minds - but maybe not impossible. Researchers have identified an effective strategy: Reframe your arguments in the moral language of your adversary. 218

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

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