Solomon Snyder has been instrumental in the establishment of modern psychopharmacology -- as a pioneer in the identification of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs and in the explanation of the actions of psychotropic agents. Science and Psychiatry is a collection of some of his best scientific papers, publications ranging over forty years that represent important advances in psychopharmacology and molecular biology. Audacious and unanticipated when they first appeared, these papers opened up new areas of understanding and revolutionized the modern study of the brain. Republished here, they show why fundamental research into the "messengers of the mind" is as essential for clinicians as for researchers.
Many of these papers have clear clinical relevance, offering insight into modern neuroscience to help make sense of the bewildering array of available psychotropic medications and point the way toward more effective and safer agents. Others describe the underpinnings of psychopharmacology that practitioners need to know, especially regarding the role of receptors in drug action. Each of the nine groups of research articles is accompanied by a commentary by a well-known authority, putting the discoveries in perspective and providing a broad overview of subjects ranging from characterization of the enkephalins to serotonin receptor subtypes. The final set of papers focuses on apoptosis, the general process of cell suicide, where Snyder's work with bilirubin holds promise for treating neurodegenerative disorders. And in a closing piece, "The Audacity Principle in Science," Snyder speculates about factors conducive to creativity and efficacy in scientific discovery.
The articles particularly describe four groups of extraordinary discoveries for which Snyder is widely recognized: Identification of opiate receptors, providing keys to understanding pain perception Characterization of the IP3 receptor, exploring its role as a target for lithium treatment in manic-depressive disorders Establishment of nitric oxide as a transmitter in the brain, radically transforming conceptualizations of neurotransmission Discovery that D-serine is the normal stimulus for the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, providing new insight into the regulation of the receptor important for learning and memory Hailed as one of the preeminent scientists of the past twenty years, Snyder is a consummate researcher who confesses to remaining obsessed with the need to "think thoughts no one else has thought before." Science and Psychiatry clearly shows how that urge accounts for the diversity of challenges he has taken on as it conveys the origins of modern psychopharmacologic practice.
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Solomon H. Snyder, M.D., is Distinguished Service Professor of Neuroscience, Pharmacology, and Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University.
About the AuthorForewordIntroductionPart I: DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OPIATE RECEPTOR- Radioligand Binding Methodologies: New Inventions, New DirectionsChapter 1. Opiate Receptor- Demonstration in Nervous TissueChapter 2. Opiate Agonists and Antagonists Discriminated by Receptor Binding in BrainChapter 3. Historical Review- Opioid ReceptorsPart II: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENKEPHALINS- The Discovery of Endogenous Opiates and Their Receptors: A Snyderian Saga of Skill and JudgmentChapter 4. Opiate Receptor in Normal and Drug Altered Brain FunctionChapter 5. Morphine-Like Peptides in Mammalian Brain- Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Interactions With the Opiate ReceptorChapter 6. Opioid Peptide Enkephalin- Immunohistochemical Mapping in Rat Central Nervous SystemPart III: DOPAMINE RECEPTORS AND INFLUENCES OF NEUROLEPTICS- Dopamine Receptor Binding and Its TherapeuticsChapter 7. Dopamine Receptor Binding Predicts Clinical and Pharmacological Potencies of Antischizophrenic DrugsChapter 8. Antischizophrenic Drugs- Chronic Treatment Elevates Dopamine Receptor Binding in BrainChapter 9. Dopamine Receptors, Neuroleptics, and SchizophreniaPart IV: DRUG EFFECTS EXPLAINED AS ACTIONS ON NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS- Perspectives on Simplicity and DiscoveryChapter 10. Antischizophrenic Drugs and Brain Cholinergic Receptors- Affinity for Muscarinic Sites Predicts Extrapyramidal EffectsChapter 11. Tricyclic Antidepressants- Therapeutic Properties and Affinity for -Noradrenergic Receptor Binding Sites in the BrainPart V: DRUG ACTIONS AND SEROTONIN RECEPTOR SUBTYPES- Clinical Data Stimulation of Basic Research: The Far-Reaching ClinicalSignificance of Serotonin Receptor Subtype IdentificationChapter 12. Long-Term Antidepressant Treatment Decreases Spiroperidol-Labeled Serotonin Receptor BindingChapter 13. Two Distinct Central Serotonin Receptors With Different Physiological FunctionsPart VI: INOSITOL PHOSPHATES AND ACTIONS OF LITHIUM- Lithium, Second Messengers, and Downstream EffectsChapter 14. Lithium Blocks a Phosphoinositide-Mediated Cholinergic Response in Hippocampal SlicesChapter 15. Solubilization, Purification, and Characterization of an Inositol Trisphosphate ReceptorChapter 16. Second Messenger Systems and Psychoactive Drug Action- Focus on the Phosphoinositide System and LithiumChapter 17. Purified Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Mediates Calcium Flux in Reconstituted Lipid VesiclesPart VII: NITRIC OXIDE AS A NEUROTRANSMITTER- Just Say "Yes": Snyder's Approach to the Difficult Problem of NOChapter 18. Nitric Oxide Mediates Glutamate-Linked Enhancement of cGMP Levels in the CerebellumChapter 19. Cloned and Expressed Nitric Oxide Synthase Structurally Resembles Cytochrome P-450 ReductaseChapter 20. Behavioral Abnormalities in Male Mice Lacking Neuronal Nitric Oxide SynthasePart VIII: D-AMINO ACIDS AS NEUROTRANSMITTERS- Disruptive Science: Incongruent Findings Lead to Novel Insights Into How the Brain WorksChapter 21. D-Aspartate Localizations Imply Neuronal and Neuroendocrine RolesChapter 22. Serine Racemase- A Glial Enzyme Synthesizing D-Serine to Regulate Glutamate-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate NeurotransmissionChapter 23. Serine Racemase- Activation by Glutamate Neurotransmission via Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein and Mediation of Neuronal MigrationPart IX: NEURAL MESSENGERS OF CELL LIFE AND DEATH- Beyond NeurotransmittersChapter 24. Cytochrome c Binds to Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors, Amplifying Calcium-Dependent ApoptosisChapter 25. Bilirubin Benefits: Cellular Protection by a Biliverdin Reductase Antioxidant CycleChapter 26. S-Nitrosylated GAPDH Initiates Apoptotic Cell Death by Nuclear Translocation Following Siah1 BindingPart X: WHAT MAKES FOR CREATIVE DISCOVERY IN SCIENCE?- What Creates Creative Science and Scientists?Chapter 27. The Audacity Principle in ScienceIndex
This book provides a very personal and readable introduction to the writings of one of the giants in modern psychiatry and neuroscience. * the American journals of Psychiatry *
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