This volume deals with the relation between faith and reason, and brings the latest developments of modern logic into the scene. Faith and rationality are two perennial key concepts in the history of ideas. Philosophers and theologians have struggled to bring into harmony these otherwise conflicting concepts. Despite the diversity of approaches about what rationality effectively means, logic remains the cannon of objective and rational thought. The chapters in this volume analyze several issues pertaining to the philosophy of religion and philosophical theology from the perspective of their relation to logic and the benefit they can derive from the use of modern logic tools. The book is divided into five parts: (I) Introduction, (II) Analytic Philosophy of Religion, (III) Logical Philosophy of Religion, (IV) Computational Philosophy and Religion and (V) Logic, Language and Religion. This text appeals to students and researchers in the field.
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Ricardo Sousa Silvestre holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the University of Montreal (Canada). He has been Visiting Scholar at the Universites of Oxford (UK), Notre Dame (USA) and Québec (Canada). He is the author of several papers on Logic and Philosophy of Religion and guest-editor of a couple of special issues on Logic and Religion, namely special issue on Logic and Religion (Logica Universalis, 2017), special issue on Logic and Philosophy of Religion (Sophia, 2017), special issue on Formal Approaches to the Ontological Argument (Journal of Applied Logics, 2018) and special issue on Logic and the Concept of God (Journal of Applied Logics, 2019). He is one of the idealizers and main organizers of the World Congress on Logic and Religion series (João Pessoa 2015 and Warsaw 2017). He is presently Associate Professor at Federal University of Campina Grande (Brazil).
Benedikt Paul Göcke is a Research Fellow at the Ian Ramsey Centre for Science and Religion and a Member of the Faculty of Theology at University of Oxford. He is also a Member of Blackfriars Hall, Oxford. Göcke is author of: A Theory of the Absolute (Macmillan, 2014), Alles in Gott? (Friedrich Pustet, 2012) and editor of After Physicalism (Notre Dame, 2012). He has published articles in journals such as The International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Zygon, Sophia, The European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, and Theologie und Philosophie, among others.
Jean-Yves Beziau has a Ph.D. in Mathematics (University of Paris 7) and a Ph.D. in Philosophy (University of São Paulo, Brazil). He has done research in France, Brazil, Poland, California (UCLA, Stanford, UCSD) and Switzerland. He is presently professor of logic in Rio de Janeiro at the University of Brazil, and the President of the Brazilian Academy of Philosophy. He is the promoter of Universal Logic as a general theory of logical structures, the founder and Editor-in-Chief of the journal Logica Universalis and book series Studies in Universal Logic, both published by Birkhäuser/Springer, Basel. He has organized a series of events on universal logic around the world (Montreux 2005, Xi'an 2007, Lisbon 2010, Rio de Janeiro, 2013, Istanbul 2015, Vichy 2018). He has renewed the study of the square of opposition, organizing interdisciplinary world events on the topic (Montreux 2007, Corsica, 2010, Beirut 2012, Vatican 2014, Easter Island 2016, Crete 2018) and the publication of special issues of journals and books. In 2019 he launched on January 14 the 1st World Logic Day which was celebrated in 60 locations around the world and was subsequently approved as an international day of UNESCO.
Purushottama Bilimoria, PhD, is presently a Fulbright-Nehru Distinguished Fellow in India affiliated with Ashoka University. He is also lecturer with Legal Studies in the University of California, Berkeley, and serves as a senior fellow in Indian Philosophy with the Center for Dharma Studies at Graduate Theological Union, in Berkeley. He is otherwise a Honorary Research Professor of Philosophy and Comparative Studies at Deakin University and Senior Fellow at University of Melbourne, in Australia. He is a Permanent Fellow with the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies in Oxford University, and past visiting scholar at All Souls College, University of Oxford, Harvard University, Emory University and UC Santa Barbara, and Visiting Professor in two universities in Brazil. He is a Co-Editor-in-Chief of Sophia, international journal of philosophy & traditions and of the Journal of Dharma Studies, both published by Springer.
Part 1. Introduction.- Chapter 1. Beyond Faith and Rationality (Benedikt Gocke).- Part 2. Analytic Philosophy of Religion.- Chapter 2. Why Believe that there is a God? (Richard Swinburne).- Chapter 3. The Failure of van Inwagen's Solution to the Problem of Evil (Benedikt Göcke).- Chapter 4. Saadia Gaon on the Problem of Evil (Eleonore Stump).- Chapter 5. Some Problems with Miracles (Agnaldo Cuoco Portugal).- Part 3. Logical Philosophy of Religion.- Chapter 6. An even more Leibnizian version of Gödel's ontological argument (Kordula Swietorzecka).- Chapter 7. A Tractarian Resolution to the Ontological Argument (Erik Thomsen).- Chapter 8. Actuality and Necessity in Anselm's Argument: a Two-dimensional Approach (Victor Gorbatov).- Chapter 9. Some Thoughts on the Logical Aspects of the Problem of Evil (Ricardo Silvestre).- Chapter 10. The Logic of Trinity and the Filioque question in Thomas Aquinas: a Formal Approach (Fábio Bertato).- Chapter 11. Defining God's Properties in Morse-Kelley Set Theory (Ward Blondé).- Part 4. Computational Philosophy and Religion.- Chapter 12. Talmudic Norms Approach to the Paradox of the Heap: A Position Paper (E. David).- Chapter 13. A Case Study on Computational Hermeneutics: E. J. Lowe's Modal Ontological Argument (David Fuenmayor).- Chapter 14. A Mechanically Assisted Examination of Begging the Question in Anselm's Ontological Argument (John Rushby).- Part 5. Paraconsistency and Religion.- Chapter 15. Is God Paraconsistent? (Newton da Costa).- Chapter 16. Contradictions and Rationality: An Analysis of two biblical Cases (Susana Gómez Gutiérrez).- Part 6. Logic, Language and Religion.- Chapter 17. Logic and Religion: The Essential Connection (Benjamin Murphy).- Chapter 18. From Logic in Islam to Islamic Logic (Musa Akrami).- Chapter 19. Thinking Negation in Early Hinduism and Classical Indian Philosophy (Purushottama Bilimoria).