Modifying Bitterness

Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications
 
 
CRC Press Inc
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. April 1997
 
  • Buch
  • |
  • Hardcover
  • |
  • 356 Seiten
978-1-56676-491-9 (ISBN)
 
Only recently has bitterness control become of commercial importance to a food or pharmaceutical formulation chemist. Over the years, an increasing interest in more palatable food and beverage products with low fat and low sugar content has arisen, thus creating a market need for the control of bitterness perception.
This is the first, comprehensive treatment of this subject in book form. Organized primarily by ingredients or processing approaches affecting the bitter taste reduction or inhibition, this thorough review includes an in-depth and thoroughly referenced review of mechanisms, ingredients and applications of bitter taste reduction or inhibition.
  • Englisch
  • Bosa Roca
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • |
  • This up-to-date text will serve the information needs of all those involved in the research, development, formulation, and processing of foods, beverages and pharmaceutical products.
  • Höhe: 239 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 152 mm
  • |
  • Dicke: 24 mm
  • 603 gr
978-1-56676-491-9 (9781566764919)
1566764912 (1566764912)
All chapters end with a section of references to the international literature on the chapter topic.
Preface
Introduction

Section I. Mechanism, Ingredients, Applications
Recent Overview of the Mechanism of Bitter Taste, Glenn Roy
o Transduction and Perception
o Rats and Mice
o Gerbils
o Bovine
o Rabbit
o Frog
o Primates and Humans
General Correlation between Models of Sweetness and Bitterness Perception, Glenn Roy
o Theoretical Studies
o Common Similarities, Experimental Data
o Sensory Measurements
o Case Studies
The Evolution of in vitro Taste Sensors, Glenn Roy
Newer Chemical Identification of Bitter Principles and Their Sources, Glenn Roy
o Health Benefits
o Bitter as Deterrent
o Bitter Principles and Sources
o Miscellaneous Bitter Principles and Sources
General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Foods and Beverages, Glenn Roy
o Ingredient Approaches
o Process Approaches
o Inclusion Complexes, Chelating Agents, Polysaccharides and Ion-Exchange Membranes
o Chemical Modifications of Bitter Substrates
o Specific Applications of Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction
Section II. A Symposium
Interactions between Sweet and Bitter Tastes, D. Eric Walters
o Introduction
o Experimental Observations
o Mechanistic Implications
o Practical Implications
o Conclusion
Factors Affecting the Perception of Bitterness: A Review, J. H. Thorngate III
o Introduction
o Bitter Taste
o Receptor Events
o Innervation and Coding
o Bitterness Measurement
o Scalar Studies
o Temporal Studies
o Factors Affecting Bitterness Perception: Compound Effects
o Taste Interactions
o Medium of Presentation
o Viscosity
o Temperature
o Oral Chemical Irritants
o Ethanol
o Mode of Presentation
o Taste Modifiers
o Prop Status
o Salivary Status
o Age
o Conclusions
Bitterness Perception across the Life Span, Claire Murphy and Jill Razini
o Taste Threshold
o Suprathreshold Intensity
o Weber Ratios
o Chemosensory Preference
o Conclusion
Suppression of Bitterness by Sodium: Implications for Flavor Enhancement, P. A. S. Breslin and G. K. Beauchamp
o Introduction
o General Methods
o Results
o Discussion
o Summary
Development of a Low-Sodium Salt: A Model for Bitterness Inhibition, Robert J. Kurtz and William D. Fuller

The Use of Exopeptidases in Bitter Taste Modification, Graham Bruce and Denise Pawlett
o Introduction
o The Nature of Bitterness
o Enzyme Selection
o Peptidases and Debittering
o Use of Peptidases to Debitter Protein Hydrolyzates
o Use of Peptidases to Prevent Bitterness in Cheese
o Summary
Specific Inhibitor for Bitter Taste, Yoshihisa Katsuragi and Kenzo Kurihara
o Introduction
o Inhibition of Frog Taste Nerve Responses to Bitter Substances by the Lipoprotein
o High Adsorption Ability of Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoproteins to Frog Tongue Surface and Hydrophobic Model Membranes
o Selective Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoprotein
o Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid
o Summary and Concluding Remarks
Section III. Applications in Oral Pharmaceuticals
General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Oral Pharmaceuticals, Glenn Roy
o Introduction
o Sweeteners, Flavors and Amino Acids
o Lipids
o Lecithin-Like Substances
o Surfactants
o Coatings and Complexes with Carbohydrates, Resins, Proteins and Zeolites
o Carbohydrates
o Proteins
o Inclusion Complexes
o Resins
o Zeolites
o Salt Preparation
o Functional Group Alteration
Cautions and Prospects in Taste-Masking Formulations, Glenn Roy
o Applications That Need Commercialization of New Technologies and Additives

Index
"The book is well-written and very readable, and it can be recommended as a reference text for all food scientists and technologists interested in the fundamentals of the bitter sensation and its perception." -Dr. Bob Johnson, Chemist, for Food Science Australia "I found the book quite fascinating, very informative, and timely. It is a book that I would recommend to those interested in the sensory property of bitterness and its control in food and beverages, as well as pharmaceutical products. I believe it to be a useful text book for all food libraries, and a 'must' in food development laboratories." -Conrad Perara for Food Technology

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