Discover the latest available knowledge on ways to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere!The problem of quickly mounting CO2 emissions in the fast-developing Latin American region was addressed in a symposium held in Piracicaba, Brazil, in June 2004. Carbon Sequestration in Soils of Latin America presents the latest available knowledge in soil C sequestration and improved land and soil management which can also lead to other positive effects, such as greater fertility of soil and higher crop yields. This text, in easy-to-understand language, comprehensively reviews ways to best transform various soils from being a source of carbon released into the atmosphere to become a sink for carbon absorption.Carbon Sequestration in Soils of Latin America presents a full-rounded explanation of this information in four sections. The first section gives detailed background information about the region, its climate, and the differing soils, along with basic concepts behind the science. The second section describes recommended management practices and rates of soil C sequestration. The third section thoroughly deals with methods of assessment of soil C. The last section provides a summary of recommendations for further research and development. The book is extensively referenced and contains numerous figures, tables, and photographs.Topics in Carbon Sequestration in Soils of Latin America include: soil eco-regions and principal biomes of Latin America soil carbon stock in principal ecosystems of Latin America rates of carbon sequestration in different eco-regions for predominant land use and management the role of the Amazon region in mitigating climate change the importance of tropical savannas of Latin America in mitigating global warming innovative methods of assessment of soil carbon pool trading carbon credits designing pilot soil carbon sequestration projects potential of soil carbon sequestration in Latin America priorities and recommendations for future researchCarbon Sequestration in Soils of Latin America is a comprehensive, essential resource for land managers, policymakers, educators, students, and researchers.
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About the Editors Contributors Preface PART I. PHYSIOGRAPHY AND BACKGROUND Chapter 1. Soil Ecoregions in Latin America (Boris Volkoff and Martial Bernoux) Introduction Continental Parameters The Biophysical or Natural Environment Soil Regions in Latin America Conclusion Chapter 2. Challenges and Opportunities of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Latin America (C. C. Cerri, M. Bernoux, C. E. P. Cerri, and R. Lal) Introduction Soil Carbon Stock Estimation Under Native Vegetation Changes of Soil Carbon Stocks upon Land-Use Change Final Considerations and Conclusions Chapter 3. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Latin America (R. Lal) Introduction Terrestrial Carbon Pool Soil Carbon Sequestration Soil Carbon Sink Capacity Rate of Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Opportunities of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Latin America Conclusions Chapter 4. Soil Carbon Stocks in Soil Ecoregions of Latin America (Martial Bernoux and Boris Volkoff) Introduction Present Land Use and Estimates of Soil Carbon Stocks Impacted by Agricultural Activities Conclusion PART II. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN DIFFERENT BIOMES OF LATIN AMERICA Chapter 5. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Western Mountain Ridges and Deserts of South America (D. Gómez, C. Balbontín, A. Monterroso, and J. D. Etchevers) Introduction General Characteristics of Biome B by Country Land Use and Land-Use Change in Biome B Soil Degradation in Biome B Soil Carbon Storage in Biome B Conclusions Chapter 6. Carbon Sequestration in Soils of the Western Mountain Ridges and Deserts of Argentina (R. A. Rosell and J. A. Galantini) Introduction Biome B of Argentina Management of Soil Organic Carbon Under Different Environments Estimated Potential of Carbon Sequestration Conclusions Chapter 7. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Mexico and Central America (Biome A) (J. D. Etchevers, O. Masera, C. Balbontín, D. Gómez, A. Monterroso, R. Martínez, M. Acosta, M. Martínez, and C. Ortiz) Introduction Land Use and Land-Use Change in Mexico and Central America Soil Degradation in Mexico and Central America Carbon Stocks in Soils of Mexico Potential Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change Conclusions Chapter 8. Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Costa Rica (Alfredo Alvarado) Introduction Soil Organic Matter As Affected by Life Zone Soil Organic Matter As Affected by Type of Soil Turnover of Soil Organic Matter Aboveground Turnover of Soil Organic Matter Belowground Soil Organic Matter and Ecosystem Management Considerations About Soil Organic Matter Determination Soil Organic Matter Stock in Costa Rica Chapter 9. Above- and Belowground Carbon Sequestration Under Various Land-Use Systems and Soil Types in Costa Rica (J. J. Jiménez and R. Lal) Introduction Costa Rica: Overview Potential Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Costa Rica Carbon Sequestration in Aboveground Biomass Potential of Carbon Sequestration in Costa Rica Conclusions Chapter 10. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration in the Caribbean (C. Feller, E. Blanchart, C. Clermont-Dauphin, Y. M. Cabidoche, C. Venkatapen, C. E. P. Cerri, A. Albrecht, T. Chevallier,D. Arrouays, M. C. Larré-Larrouy, and M. Bernoux) Introduction Population and Land Use Soils of Biome C: Types, Distribution, Constraints, and Degradation Soil/Crop Management and SOC Stock Potential for SOC Sequestration in Biome C Policy Considerations Conclusions Chapter 11. Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Neotropical Savannas of Colombia and Venezuela (Marco A. Rondón, Mandius Romero, Dimas Acevedo, Lina Sarmiento, Rosa M. Hernandez, Miguel Ayarza, Yolanda Rubiano, Edmundo Barrios, Mariela Rivera, Idupulapati Rao, and Edgar Amezquita) Introduction Landscape Units Climate Soils Native Vegetation Land Use Constraints to Primary Productivity Current Carbon Stocks in Soils Effects of Land-Use Intensification Carbon Sequestration Potential Uncertainties in the Social and International Contexts Opportunities for Carbon Trading in the Llanos Conclusions and Future Perspectives Chapter 12. Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration in the Amazonian Tropical Rainforests (C. E. P. Cerri, C. C. Cerri, M. Bernoux, B. Volkoff, and M. A. Rondón) Introduction Description of the Study Area Scenarios of Soil C Sequestration in the Amazon Final Considerations Chapter 13. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Pasture and Agro-Silvo-Pastoral Systems in Tropical Andean Hillsides (M. C. Amézquita, P. Buurman, E. Murgueitio, and E. Amézquita) Introduction The Tropical Andean Hillsides Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration Research in the Tropical Andean Hillsides Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential in the Tropical Andean Hillsides Ecosystem Conclusions Chapter 14. Soil Carbon Storage and Sequestration Potential in the Cerrado Region of Brazil (Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, Marc Corbeels, Eric Scopel, and Renato Roscoe) Introduction Land-Use History in the Cerrado Region Soil Carbon Stocks Under Native Cerrado Vegetation Impacts of Land Use on Soil C Storage Modeling Changes in Soil Organic C and Total N Adoption of Better Agricultural Practices and Potential of Soil C Sequestration Chapter 15A. Potential of Carbon Sequestration in Soils of the Atlantic Forest Region of Brazil (Robert M. Boddey, Claudia P. Jantalia, Michele O. Macedo, Octávio C. de Oliveira, Alexander S. Resende, Bruno J. R. Alves, and Segundo Urquiaga) Introduction States of the Federation Within the Biome ?Atlantic Forest? Land Use Soil Carbon Accumulation Under Different Land Uses Synthesis, Scenarios, and Conclusions Chapter 15B. Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration for the Brazilian Atlantic Region (F. F. C. Mello, C. E. P. Cerri, M. Bernoux, B. Volkoff, and C. C. Cerri) Introduction Description of the Study Area Actual Land Use Scenarios and Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration Conclusions Chapter 16. The Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration in the Pampas (Martín Díaz-Zorita and Daniel E. Buschiazzo) Introduction Land Use Soils and Soil Degradation Soil/Crop Management Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration Policy Considerations Conclusions Chapter 17. Effects of Environmental and Management Practices on the Potential for Climatic Change Mitigation in the Pampas of Argentina (Juan A. Galantini and Ramón A. Rosell) Introduction Environmental Factors Related to Sink Capacity Management Effects on SOC Sequestration Conclusions PART III. SOIL CARBON ASSESSMENT METHODS Chapter 18. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications for Soil Carbon Measurement (Michael H. Ebinger, David A. Cremers, Clifton M. Meyer, and Ronny D. Harris) Introduction Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Conclusions Chapter 19. The Potential of Spectroscopic Methods for the Rapid Analysis of Soil Samples (J. B. Reeves III, G. W. McCarty, R. F. Follett, and J. M. Kimble) Introduction Methods Results and Discussion Conclusions Chapter 20. In Situ Noninvasive Soil Carbon Analysis: Sample Size and Geostatistical Considerations (Lucian Wielopolski) Introduction Attributes of the INS System Conclusion Chapter 21. Methods and Tools for Designing a Pilot Soil Carbon Sequestration Project (R. C. Izaurralde and C. W. Rice) Introduction Regional Context Detecting and Scaling Changes in Soil Carbon by Direct Measurements, Simulation Modeling, and Remote Sensing Interpretation Conclusion Chapter 22. Advances in Models to Measure Soil Carbon: Can Soil Carbon Really Be Measured? (John Kimble) Introduction Can We Measure Soil Carbon? General Concerns Assessment and Measurement Concerns Conclusion Chapter 23. Bulk Density Measurement for Assessment of Soil Carbon Pools (R. Lal) Introduction Factors Affecting Soil Bulk Density Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Soil Bulk Density Importance of Bulk Density in Measuring Pools of Carbon and Other Constituents Reasons for Accurate Measurement of Soil Carbon Pools Measurement of Soil Bulk Density Bulk Density Measurement for Problem Soils Prediction of Soil Bulk Density Conclusions PART IV. CONCLUSION Chapter 24. Recommendations for Research and Development (R. Lal, C. Cerri, M. Bernoux, and J. Etchevers) Establishment of the Latin American Soil Carbon Network Rates of Soil Carbon Sequestration Measuring, Monitoring, and Verification Policies and Programs How Governments Can Encourage Soil Carbon Sequestration Communication Among Scientists, Policymakers, and Land Managers Specific Research Priorities Index Reference Notes Included
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