This volume explores the effects of aquatic contaminants on ecological subsidies and food web exposure at the boundary of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. It provides the first synthesis of the findings and principles governing the "dark side" of contaminant effects on ecological subsidies. Furthermore, the volume provides extensive coverage of the tools being developed to help managers and researchers better understand the implications of contaminants movement and their effects on natural resources and ecosystem processes.
Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked through movements of energy and nutrients which subsidize recipient food webs. As a result, contaminants that concentrate in aquatic systems because of the effects of gravity on water and organic matter have the potential to impact both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem processes. Within the last decade, increased attention has been paid to this phenomenon, particularly the effects of aquatic contaminants on resource and contaminant export to terrestrial consumers, and the potential implications for management. This volume, curated and edited by three field leaders, incorporates empirical results, management applications and theoretical synthesis and is a key reference for academics, government researchers and consultants.
Johanna M. Kraus, Ph.D.
is a Research Ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey Columbia Environmental Research Center where she applies principles of community ecology to study the effects of chemical contaminants on food webs, biodiversity and environmental health in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. She began her career with the USGS in 2011 researching how trace metals from acid rock drainage impact adult aquatic insect emergence and contaminant flux to terrestrial insectivores near mountain streams. Since then she has improved understanding of how chemical contaminants impact linked aquatic-terrestrial food webs using large empirical field studies, laboratory manipulations and conceptual modelling. Dr. Kraus received her B.A. in Biology from Brown University and Ph.D. in Biology from the University of Virginia.
David M. Walters, Ph.D. is a Research Ecologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center. His research focuses on the effects of human stressors on the form, function, and structure of aquatic and riparian ecosystems with an emphasis on food web dynamics and contaminants. He began his career at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Exposure Research Laboratory in 2002 before joining the USGS in 2008. His publications have addressed the impacts of contaminants, land use and climate change, invasive species, and hydrologic alteration on aquatic and riparian organisms and are geared toward furthering the conservation and restoration of these valued ecosystems. He received an M.S. and Ph.D. from the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia.
Marc A. Mills, Ph.D. is an Environmental Engineer at the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development and is a principal investigator for projects characterizing the occurrence, transport, and fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in the environment and the management of contaminated sediments. Dr. Mills leads research to identify sources of contaminants to aquatic systems and tracing their movement through the environment and food webs. He also leads the development of analytical methods for CECs (e.g. PFAS, EDCs, PPCPs) and stable isotope chemistry for environmental samples in water, wastewater, solids, and tissues at the Center for Environmental Solutions and Emergency Response (CESER) for U.S. EPA. These methods are used to characterize potential sources of CECs and legacy contaminants, their management in water, wastewater treatment, water bodies, and new technology development. Dr. Mills has a B.S. in Civil/Environmental Engineering from Texas A&M University and a M.S. and Ph.D. from the Texas A&M University.
Chapter 1: Introduction: Ecological Subsidies as a Framework for Understanding Contaminant Fate, Exposure, and Effects at the Land-Water Interface.- Part I: Ecological Subsidies Drive Exposure.- Chapter 2: Ecological Factors Controlling Insect-Mediated Methylmercury Flux from Aquatic to Terrestrial Ecosystems: Lessons Learned from Mesocosm and Pond Experiments.- Chapter 3: Pathways of Contaminant Transport Across the Aquatic-Terrestrial Interface: Implications for Terrestrial Consumers, Ecosystems and Management.- Part II: Exposure Drives Ecological Subsidies.- Chapter 4: Agriculture and Mining Contamination Contribute to a Productivity Gradient Driving Cross-Ecosystem Associations between Stream Insects and Riparian Arachnids.- Chapter 5: Cross-Ecosystem Linkages and Trace Metals at the Land-Water Interface.- Chapter 6: Metamorphosis and the Impact of Contaminants on Ecological Subsidies.- Part III: Other Global Stressors.- Chapter 7: Variables Affecting Resource Subsidies from Streams and Rivers to Land and their Susceptibility to Global Change Stressors.- Chapter 8: Beyond "Donors and Recipients": Impacts of Species Gains and Losses Reverberate among Ecosystems due to Changes in Resource Subsidies.- Part IV: Management Applications and Tools.- Chapter 9: Practical Considerations for the Incorporation of Insect-Mediated Contaminant Flux into Ecological Risk Assessments.- Chapter 10: When Nutrients Become Contaminants in Aquatic Systems: Identifying Responses to Guide Terrestrial-Derived Detrital Endpoint Development for Managers.- Chapter 11: Mesocosms to Evaluate Aquatic-Terrestrial Contaminant Linkages using Aquatic Insect Emergence: Utility for Aquatic Life Criteria Development.- Chapter 12: Studying Effects of Contaminants on Aquatic-Terrestrial Subsidies: Experimental Designs using Outdoor and Indoor Mesocosms and Microcosms.- Part V: Syntheses.- Chapter 13: Ecological Networks as a Framework for Understanding and Predicting Contaminant Movement across the Land-Water Interface.- Chapter: 14: Synthesis: A Framework for Predicting the Dark Side of Ecological Subsidies.