Standard Methods of Geophysical Formation Evaluation

CRC Press Inc
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 29. Dezember 1997
  • Buch
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  • Hardcover
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  • 464 Seiten
978-1-56670-261-4 (ISBN)
These three works cover the entire field of formation evaluation, from basic concepts and theories, through standard methods used by the petroleum industry, on to new and exciting applications in environmental science and engineering, hydrogeology, and other fields. Designed to be used individually or as a set, these volumes represent the first comprehensive assessment of all exploration methodologies. No other books offer the breadth of information and range of applications available in this set.
  • Englisch
  • Bosa Roca
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  • USA
Taylor & Francis Inc
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
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  • Für Beruf und Forschung
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  • Petroleum and mineral geologistsEnvironmental engineers involved in site remediationHydrogeologistsCivil and mining engineersArchaeologistsExploration geophysicistsEnvironmental LawyersStudents in geophysics and geology programs
  • 36 s/w Tabellen, 56 s/w Photographien bzw. Rasterbilder
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  • 363 equations; 56 Halftones, black and white; 36 Tables, black and white
  • Höhe: 243 mm
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  • Breite: 164 mm
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  • Dicke: 33 mm
  • 816 gr
978-1-56670-261-4 (9781566702614)
1-56670-261-5 (1566702615)
Resistivity MethodsIntroductionUnfocused Resistivity MethodsSingle Electrode Systems Equivalent Circuit Effect of Formation Resistivity Volume of InvestigationAveraging within the Volume of InvestigationPosition of the Return ElectrodeReturn Electrode Grounding ResistanceMulti-Electrode Systems Normal Resistivity Devices Empirical Method to Estimate Rt Departure Curves Lateral Resistivity DevicesGeneral Expression for Resistivity DevicesMicroresistivity SystemsMiscellaneous Resistivity ItemsSurface Resistivity MethodsFocused Resistivity MethodsFocusing Electrode Devices, Omnidirectional 3-Electrode Guard Logs 7-Electrode Guard Logs Shallow Investigating Guarded Electrode Device Spherically Focused Systems Radial Pseudo-Geometrical FactorsSidewall Guarded Electrode Systems Microlaterolog (MLL) Proximity Log (PL) Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)General Reduction ProcedureInduction MethodsIntroduction PrincipleConventional Induction LogsPhasor Induction SystemsArray Induction LogsFactors Affecting Induction Logs Skin Effect Bed Boundary Effects Thin Bed Response Dipping Beds Net Bed Boundary ResponseData ReductionBorehole CorrectionsAdjacent Bed CorrectionInvaded Zone CorrectionResistivity Log InterpretationIntroductionThe Archie MethodValues of the Cementation ExponentThe Ratio MethodThe Rocky Mountain MethodThe Migrated Hydrocarbon Method Estimation of Permeability from Resistivity GradientDetermination of the Diameter of Invasion Reading "Tornado" Charts, DetailRt vs. ? Crossplot, The Pickett Plot The Nonlinear (Hingle) CrossplotThe Movable Hydrocarbon MethodThe FR,a vs. FR MethodThe RW,a vs. RW MethodNon-Hydrocarbon Usage of Resistance and ResistivitySpontaneous PotentialsIntroductionPrinciplesPhysical Principles Absorption or Shale Potential The Electrochemical or Diffusion Potential Effect of Ion TypesThin Beds Formation Water Resistivity, RWTaking Ion Types into Consideration The Effect of Shale Direction of Deflection Formation Resistivity EffectsThe Static SPCalculation of SalinityReduction of Data ExampleThe Electrokinetic ComponentRedox ComponentProblems with SP Measurements Resistance Component Sensitivity to Motion Electrodes Touching the Sidewall Bimetallism Improper Electrode MaterialMethods of Determining RW and Use of RW Calculations SP vs. RXO/Rt; the Ratio Method Ionic Conduction RW from Resistivity Values The Use of RWa The Dual Water Model RW from RXO and Rt Dunlap MultipliersThe SP Measurement in Fresh Water SandsNatural Gamma RadiationIntroductionRadiation from Formation Materials Clays Sands Carbonates Igneous and Metamorphic Materials Fractures and FaultsGross or Total Count Gamma Ray Systems Ranges of Detection Equilibrium Volume of Investigation and Borehole CorrectionsCalibrationsUses Volume of Clay/Shale Estimation, Vsh Correlation LithologyDead TimeBed Boundary EffectsThin BedsDipping Beds and Slant HolesGrade CalculationsFracture DetectionTracersGamma Ray SpectroscopyIntroductionChemical and Geological ImplicationsSystem Types Detectors Single Window Systems KUT Systems MCA Systems Monitoring SystemsProblems with Spectrographic SystemsMajor Mineral Systems Uraniferous Minerals Systems Thorium Minerals Potassium Minerals GeneralMiscellaneous EffectsSpectrometric Ratios Uses of RatiosCrossplottingScattered Gamma Ray MethodsIntroductionFormation Density LoggingSource Energy RequirementsOperation Example 1, The Mole Fraction Method Example 2, The Molecular Mass MethodDownhole Tool Types Omnidirectional Density Systems Single Spacing Sidewall Systems Mudcake Compensated Density SystemsCalibrationsInterference by Natural Gamma RadiationRock Type Identification Example 3, Mineral Identification and Z/A RatioPorosity Calculations Example 4, Porosity from Bulk DensityCoal AnalysisScattered Gamma Ray SpectroscopyNeutron Porosity LoggingIntroductionPhysical Description Operational Principles Moderation Reactions Sources DetectorsSystems Now in Use Single Spacing Systems Sidewall Neutron Porosity Systems Borehole Compensated SystemsNeutron Porosity Measurements Shale Correction Rock Type Corrections Borehole Corrections Cased Hole UseCalibrationData Reduction Depth of Investigation Source-Detector Spacing Interpretation MethodsChlorine LogsNeutron Activation MethodsIntroductionTypes of SystemsIsotopic SourcesNeutron GeneratorsDetector TypesAction Within the Formation MaterialSaturation SystemsNeutron Induced Gamma Ray LogsCapture SpectraRatio LogsUranium SystemsThermal Neutron Formation Temperature LogsAcoustic Methods - PorosityIntroductionPrinciples Operation Principles of Downhole Acoustic SystemsTool Configurations Single Transmitter, Single Receiver Systems Multiple Receiver Systems Borehole Compensated Systems Long Spacing Acoustic Systems The Array Sonic SystemLog Presentation Effect of Gas and Road NoiseFull Wave SystemsEvaluation Porosity Determinations Mechanical Properties Effects of Clay or Shale Primary Porosity Fractured Media Porosity and Lithology Determinations Analysis of Log, Figure 19-33Determination of Permeability from Acoustic LogsCement Bond LoggingDetermination of the Shear Wave Velocity using the Stoneley ModeFormation Evaluation - Standard MethodsIntroductionAssumptionsMethods AvailableMultiple ParametersScopeResearchNew InformationMethods to be UsedAnalysis Methods - Standard Measurements Normalizing Data Cuttings Lag Identifying the Formation Sequence Characteristic Signatures and Values Target Zones Visual ExaminationQuantitative Analysis Quantitative Porosity and Saturation Reserve CalculationRock Type Shale and Clay Content MN Crossplot The AK Crossplot The MID Plot Simultaneous Equation Method Frequency PlotsPermeability k Estimated from the Resistivity Gradient k as a Function of Mineral ContentFormation Fluids Formation Fluid Types Formation Fluid Distribution Formation Fluid PressureStructural Changes Formation Rock Strength and CompetenceZone ExtentRedox EffectsEnhancementCombinationsOther MethodsIndex
"fundamental knowledge and general rules of well logging are gathered and clearly presented and the reviewed book can play important role in the education of log analysts." -Jadwiga Jarzyna, Environmental Protection
"fundamental knowledge and general rules of well logging are gathered and clearly presented and the reviewed book can play important role in the education of log analysts." -Jadwiga Jarzyna, Environmental Protection

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