Toxicology of Cyanides and Cyanogens: Experimental, Applied and Clinical Aspects

Experimental, Applied and Clinical Aspects
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 11. Dezember 2015
 
  • Buch
  • |
  • Hardcover
  • |
  • 368 Seiten
978-1-119-97853-4 (ISBN)
 
The basic and applied toxicology of cyanides and cyanogens has widespread commercial, occupational, environmental, clinical, forensic, military, and public health implications. This book provides a detailed and updated reference describing the properties, uses, general and human toxicology, clinical recognition, diagnosis and medical management, and countermeasures is therefore required in academic, medical, occupational, environmental, medico-legal, regulatory, emergency response, and military arenas. Edited by a world-renowned team of experts from academia, defense and industry, this book will be an invaluable reference for professionals, researchers and students in cyanide and cyanogens.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Höhe: 254 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 189 mm
  • |
  • Dicke: 25 mm
  • 776 gr
978-1-119-97853-4 (9781119978534)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Alan H. Hall Toxicology Consulting and Medical Translating Services, Inc., USA Department of Health & Human Services, Colorado School of Public Health, USA Gary E. Isom Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Purdue University, USA Gary A. Rockwood Analytical Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, USA
List of Contributors xv Foreword xix 1 Acute cyanide toxicity 1 Andrea R. Allen, Lamont Booker, and Gary A. Rockwood 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Pharmacokinetic properties of cyanide 2 1.3 Pharmacodynamic properties of cyanide 4 1.4 Acute cyanide toxicity - routes of administration 5 1.5 Neurological and behavioral effects following acute cyanide exposure 12 1.6 Summary 14 References 14 2 Chronic cyanide exposure 21 Jason D. Downey, Kelly A. Basi, Margaret R. DeFreytas, and Gary A. Rockwood 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 Sources of chronic cyanide exposure 21 2.3 Chronic cyanide exposure in human disease 23 2.4 Experimental models of chronic cyanide exposure 30 2.5 Conclusion 35 References 36 3 Physicochemical properties synthesis applications and transport 41 David E. Thompson and Ilona Petrikovics 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Natural sources of cyanide 41 3.3 Isolation and characterization of cyanide 43 3.4 Industrial production of cyanide 44 3.5 Applications and uses of cyanide 46 Acknowledgments 50 References 50 4 Cyanide metabolism and physiological disposition 54 Gary E. Isom, Joseph L. Borowitz, and Alan H. Hall 4.1 Introduction 54 4.2 Metabolism and toxicokinetics 55 4.3 Non-enzymatic detoxification of cyanide 63 4.4 Diseases associated with altered cyanide metabolism 64 4.5 Metabolism and endogenous generation of cyanide 65 References 65 5 Biochemical mechanisms of cyanide toxicity 70 Gary E. Isom and Joseph L. Borowitz 5.1 Introduction 70 5.2 Cytochrome oxidase inhibition and mitochondrial dysfunction 72 5.3 Oxidative stress and inhibition of cellular oxidative defense 75 5.4 Cyanide-induced changes in cellular Ca2+ regulation 76 5.5 Cyanide-induced cell death and post-intoxication lesions 77 5.6 Alteration of intermediary metabolism and lactic acidosis 78 5.7 Conclusion 78 References 79 6 Environmental toxicology of cyanide 82 Samantha L. Malone, Linda L. Pearce, and Jim Peterson 6.1 Introduction 82 6.2 Environmentally relevant chemistry of cyanides 83 6.3 Occupational concerns 87 6.4 Ground/surface water 87 6.5 Exposure to cyanogens through diet 89 6.6 Dietary health hazards 89 6.7 Cassava consumption 90 6.8 Fires and smoke 91 6.9 Conclusion 92 References 93 7 Cyanide in the production of long-term adverse health effects in humans 98 Julie Cliff, Hipolito Nzwalo, and Humberto Muquingue 7.1 Introduction 98 7.2 Long-term adverse health effects 100 7.3 Conclusions 107 References 107 8 Pediatric cyanide poisoning 113 Robert J. Geller 8.1 Introduction 113 8.2 Sources of acute cyanide poisoning in children 114 8.3 Manifestations of acute cyanide poisoning 122 8.4 Cyanide antidotes 124 8.5 Conclusion 126 References 126 9 Sodium nitroprusside in intensive care medicine and issues of cyanide poisoning cyanide poisoning prophylaxis and thiocyanate poisoning 129 Prasad Abraham, Alissa Lockwood, John Patka, Marina Rabinovich, Jennifer Sutherland, and Katleen Chester 9.1 Introduction 129 9.2 History 129 9.3 Mechanism of action 130 9.4 Metabolism 130 9.5 Evidence for CN. toxicity associated with SNP 132 9.6 Incidence of CN. toxicity 134 9.7 Challenges associated with CN.monitoring 140 9.8 Safe use of SNP - clinical monitoring 141 9.9 Prevention and treatment of CN.toxicity 142 9.10 Conclusions 146 9.11 Disclosure 146 References 146 10 Smoke inhalation 151 Alan H. Hall and Stephen W. Borron 10.1 Introduction 151 10.2 Cyanide in smoke inhalation 152 10.3 Plasma lactate levels as a screening assay 154 10.4 Exhaled breath cyanide meters 154 10.5 Cobinamide colorimetric quantitative/qualitative blood cyanide measurements 154 10.6 Additional information 154 References 156 11 Occupational exposure to cyanide 158 Tee L. Guidotti 11.1 Introduction 158 11.2 Firefighters 159 11.3 Hazmat and counter-terrorism 161 11.4 Other occupations 162 11.5 Illicit operations using cyanide 163 References 164 12 Cyanogenic aliphatic nitriles 166 Stephen W. Borron 12.1 Overview 166 12.2 Toxicology 166 12.3 Case reports of human toxicity of specific nitriles 172 12.4 Antidotal treatment 178 12.5 Summary 179 Acknowledgments 179 References 179 13 The special case of acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-C identical to N) 181 Dana B. Mirkin 13.1 Introduction - clinical vignettes 181 13.2 Physical and chemical properties 182 13.3 History - preparation - manufacture 182 13.4 Occurrence 183 13.5 Compounds and uses 183 13.6 Hazardous exposures 184 13.7 Toxicokinetics 184 13.8 Mode of action 185 13.9 Clinical effects 186 13.10 Diagnosis - toxicity 189 13.11 Treatment - antidote 190 13.12 Biological monitoring 191 13.13 Exposure limits 191 References 192 14 Cyanide in chemical warfare and terrorism 195 René Pita 14.1 Cyanides as chemical warfare agents 195 14.2 Cyanide and chemical terrorism 200 14.3 Conclusions 206 References 206 15 Cyanide-induced neural dysfunction and neurodegeneration 209 Gary E. Isom and Joseph L. Borowitz 15.1 Introduction 209 15.2 Cyanide exposure and manifestations of toxicity 210 15.3 Cyanide-induced histotoxic hypoxia and metabolic dysfunction 210 15.4 Neurochemical actions of cyanide in the nervous system 212 15.5 Cyanide-induced brain injury and neurodegeneration 214 15.6 Endogenous cyanide generation in CNS 215 15.7 Cyanide-induced neurological disorders 216 15.8 Conclusion 220 References 220 16 Cyanides and cardiotoxicity 224 J.-L. Fortin, T. Desmettre, P. Luporsi, and G. Capellier 16.1 Introduction 224 16.2 Physiopathology 224 16.3 Clinical aspects 226 16.4 Treatment 228 16.5 Conclusion 230 References 230 17 Respiratory effects of cyanide 232 A. Eisenkraft, A. Falk, and Y. Bentur 17.1 Background 232 17.2 Mechanisms of the respiratory effects of cyanide 233 17.3 Clinical manifestations and animal studies 238 17.4 Management of cyanide poisoning and its respiratory effects 241 17.5 Conclusion 245 References 245 18 The analysis of cyanide in biological samples 249 Brian A. Logue and Brendan L. Mitchell 18.1 Introduction 249 18.2 Biological matrices 249 18.3 Sample storage 251 18.4 Sample preparation 251 18.5 Spectroscopy 252 18.6 Gas chromatography 254 18.7 High-performance liquid chromatography 256 18.8 Capillary electrophoresis 257 18.9 Electrochemical methods 258 18.10 Sensors 258 18.11 Cyanide metabolites 260 18.12 Insights on cyanide analysis 260 References 260 19 Postmortem pathological and biochemical diagnosis of cyanide poisoning 268 Daniel Lugassy and Lewis Nelson 19.1 Introduction 268 19.2 Cyanide pathology and antemortem presentation 268 19.3 Exposures 269 19.4 Autopsy features 269 19.5 Biochemical analysis 271 19.6 Risk to autopsy staff 273 References 274 Further reading 275 20 Medicolegal and forensic factors in cyanide poisoning 276 Jorn Chi-Chung Yu and Ashraf Mozayani 20.1 Introduction 276 20.2 Forensic practice for the investigation of cyanide poisoning 277 20.3 Discussion 278 20.4 Conclusion 280 References 280 21 Brief overview of mechanisms of cyanide antagonism and cyanide antidotes in current clinical use 283 Alan H. Hall 21.1 Introduction 283 21.2 Methemoglobin inducers 283 21.3 Sulfur donors 285 21.4 Direct cyanide chelating agents 285 21.5 Conclusion 286 References 286 22 Cyanide antidotes in clinical use: 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP) 288 Alan H. Hall 22.1 Introduction 288 22.2 Mechanism of action 288 22.3 Experimental data 289 22.4 Published clinical data 289 22.5 Adverse/side effects 290 22.6 Conclusions 291 References 291 23 Cyanide antidotes in clinical use: dicobalt EDTA (Kelocyanor(r)) 292 Alan H. Hall 23.1 Introduction 292 23.2 Mechanism of action 292 23.3 Experimental data 293 23.4 Published clinical data 293 23.5 Adverse/side effects 294 23.6 Conclusions 294 References 294 24 Amyl nitrite sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate 296 Richard J. Geller 24.1 History and chemistry 296 24.2 Theoretical bases for use/mechanism of action 297 24.3 Pharmacokinetics 299 24.4 How supplied 299 24.5 Indication and dosing of intravenous antidotes 300 24.6 Adverse effects 301 24.7 Conclusions 301 References 301 25 Cyanide antidotes in current clinical use: hydroxocobalamin 304 Alan H. Hall and Stephen W. Borron 25.1 Background and historical perspective 304 25.2 Pharmacology 305 25.3 Experimental animal studies 306 25.4 Human experience 306 25.5 Dosage and route of administration 306 25.6 Adverse effects 306 25.7 Laboratory interferences 307 25.8 Comparison with other antidotes 307 25.9 Conclusion 307 References 307 26 Cyanide antidotes in development and new methods to monitor cyanide toxicity 309 Matthew Brenner, Sari Mahon-Brenner, Steven E. Patterson, Gary A. Rockwood, and Gerry R. Boss 26.1 Introduction 309 26.2 Cobinamide and sulfanegen 310 26.3 Other cyanide antidotes in development 313 26.4 New research methods to diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and therapy 313 26.5 Conclusions 316 References 316 27 Recent perspectives on alpha-ketoglutarate 317 R. Bhattacharya 27.1 Introduction 317 27.2 Cyanide toxicity and its treatment 318 27.3 A-KG as a cyanide antidote 318 27.4 The need for an oral antidote 321 27.5 A-KG as an oral antidote 321 27.6 Some key functions of A-KG 323 27.7 Efficacy of A-KG against other toxins 324 27.8 Role of A-KG as a nutritional supplement 324 27.9 Conclusion 325 Acknowledgments 325 References 325 28 Azide poisonings 330 Thomas L. Kurt and Wendy Klein-Schwartz 28.1 Introduction 330 28.2 Lack of cyanide antidote efficacy 331 28.3 Uses of sodium azide 331 28.4 Review of reported sodium azide human poisoning cases 331 28.5 Human experimental exposures to sodium azide and hydrazoic acid 332 28.6 Signs and symptoms 332 28.7 Fatal cases 332 28.8 Historical perspective 333 28.9 Mechanism(s) of action 333 28.10 Autopsy findings 333 28.11 Other outcomes 333 28.12 Occupational health issues 333 28.13 Occupational/environmental exposure limits/recommendations 334 28.14 Laboratory evaluation 334 28.15 Conclusion 334 Acknowledgments 334 Conflict of interest 334 References 334 Index 337
The basic and applied toxicology of cyanides and cyanogens has widespread commercial, occupational, environmental, clinical, forensic, military, and public health implications. Toxicology of Cyanides and Cyanogens: Experimental, Applied, and Clinical Aspects provides a detailed and updated reference describing the properties, uses, toxicology, clinical recognition, diagnosis and medical management, and countermeasures for this important group of compounds.

* This comprehensive up-to-date reference will serve as a compendium of information on cyanide and cyanide-related compounds.

* Reviews all aspects of cyanide toxicology and gives detailed accounts of its effects on different organ systems.

* Describes the biochemical basis and mechanisms of cyanide poisoning and the development of new antidotes and analytical procedures.

* Covers accidental cyanide poisoning, both at work and in the home, as well as deliberate use of cyanides in warfare, murder, and suicide.

* Describes cyanogens, their sources, mode of action, and treatments in addition to a detailed compendium of the major naturally occurring cyanogens.

Edited by a world-renowned team of experts in academia, defense and industry. This book is an invaluable reference for professionals; researchers and students in environmental, medical, and forensic toxicology; risk management; chemical warfare and defense.

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