In the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act in 1987, the U.S. EPA specifically addressed toxics management. In addition to the requirement to eliminate discharge of toxics, there can be a requirement to conduct a toxicity reduction evaluation (TRE). The scope of toxicity reduction varies from the very simple and inexpensive to the highly complex and costly. This book, volume three of the Water Quality Management Library, provides a complete overview of toxicity reduction evaluation. The book presents the testing and removal of toxicants, toxicity testing procedures, sampling techniques, baseline collection data, and source identification. Plus, the book presents toxicity reduction methodologies including unit processes necessary for organic toxicant control using biological and physical chemical methodologies as well as selected unit processes necessary for inorganic toxicant control.
Overview of Toxicity Reduction Evaluations Introduction to Toxicity Identification and Toxicity Reduction Evaluations: Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing - Toxicity Identification and Toxicity Reduction Evaluations - Toxicity Reduction Methodologies Organic Toxicant Control: - Granular and Powdered Activated Carbon-Chemical Treatment - Carbon Adsorption - The Potential of Carbon Application for Toxicity Reduction - Granular Activated Carbon Application Fixed Beds - Fluidized Bed Reactor Carbon Application - Powdered Activated Carbon Application - Screen Testing and Analysis - Chemical Oxidation of Organics Toxicity Reduction Methodologies - Biological Toxicant Control: - Stripping of Volatile Organics - Biodegradation - Effect of Shock Loads on Effluent Quality - Inhibition in the Activated Sludge Process - Modified OECD Method 209 - Fed-Batch Reactor (FBR) Toxicity Reduction Methodologies: - Alternative Technologies for Control of Cationic Toxicants - Precipitation/Co-Precipitation Technology for Inorganic Toxicants Control - Control of Inorganic Anions Control of Cyanide and Ammonia Case Histories--The Petroleum Refining Industry Case Histories Municipalities: - Plant Performance Evaluation Case Study - Toxicity Identification Case Study - Toxicity Source Evaluation Case Study - Tier II Toxicity Source Evaluation - Toxicity Control Evaluation Case Study Publicly Owned Treatment Works Toxicity Reduction Evaluation: - TRE Program Development - Characterization and Source Investigation (Phase A) Case Histories The Chemical Processing Industry: - Pesticide Manufacturing Facility - Munitions Manufacturing Facility - Chemicals Manufacturing Facility Case Histories The Pulp and Paper Industry: - Facility Operation and Maintenance Evaluation - Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) - Toxicity Source Investigation (TSI) - In-Plant Source Controls - Toxicity Treatability Evaluation (TTE) - Control Method Selection, Implementation, and Confirmation Index
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