The Science of Composting

 
 
CRC Press Inc
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 17. Dezember 1996
 
  • Buch
  • |
  • Hardcover
  • |
  • 504 Seiten
978-1-56676-478-0 (ISBN)
 
FROM THE PREFACE
The main objective of composting is to transform organic materials into a stable usable product. Often organic materials which may have limited beneficial use in their raw state or have regulatory disposal constraints can be transformed by composting into marketable products. The limits on beneficial reuse may be regulations or they may be due to the potential for materials to be putrescible or pathogenic. Composting can be a solution for each of these.

The implementation of composting on a large scale (in contrast to home or backyard composting) involves materials handling. Technological implementation of composting must be consistent with the biological demand of the system. If the biological system is violated, conditions will not be optimized for composting, and problems such as odor generation, insufficient aeration or moisture, or a combination of these conditions may result. Past problems and closure of facilities have been largely due to violations of the biological systems. Product quality with respect to particle size, inclusions, moisture content and other physical aspects are a function of engineering design. A well designed system must have the biological and engineering principles in harmony at all times.
  • Englisch
  • Bosa Roca
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Höhe: 229 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 152 mm
  • 807 gr
978-1-56676-478-0 (9781566764780)
1566764785 (1566764785)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Preface
Composting: A Prospective
Composting and Recycling
History
Philosophical Aspects and the Future of Composting in the United States
Advantages and Disadvantages of Composting
Conclusion
References

Basic Concepts
Introduction
Oxygen and Aeration
Moisture
Temperature
Nutrients: Carbon, Nitrogen, pH
Summary
References

Microbiology
Introduction
Microbial Populations
Temperature
Moisture
Nutrients
Inoculants
Summary
References

Biochemistry
Introduction
Organic Matter
Biochemical Manifestations Occurring during Composting
Biochemical Manifestations Occurring When Compost Is Applied to Soil
Humus Formation
Summary
References

Stability, Maturity, and Phytotoxicity
Introduction
Stability and Maturity:

Chemical Methods
Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio (C/N)
Nitrogen Species
pH
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
Organic Chemical Constituents
Humification Parameters Humification Index
Relative Concentrations of Humic Acid to Fulvic Acid
Humic Substance
Functional Groups
Optical Density Physical Methods
Temperature and Heat Output
Color, Odor, Structure and Specific Gravity
Plant Assays
Microbiological Tests and Activities Respiration-Carbon Dioxide Evolution
Respiration-Oxygen Uptake
Microbial Changes
Enzyme Activity Phytotoxicity
Summary
References

Trace Elements, Heavy Metals, and Micronutrients
Introduction
Essentiality and Toxicity Arsenic (As)
Boron (B)
Cadmium (Cd)
Copper (Cu)
Lead (Pb)
Mercury (Hg)
Molybdenum (Mo)
Nickel (Ni)
Selenium (Se)
Zinc (Zn)
Occurrence in the Environment
Environmental Consequences Leachate Characteristics of Compost
Soil-Plant Interactions Type of Trace Element and Chemical State
Soil Acidity
Organic Matter
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
Reversion to Unavailable Forms
Other Aspects
Effect of Compost on Trace Element Uptake
Summary
References

Organic Compounds
Introduction
Organic Compounds in Various Compost Materials and Feedstocks
Fate of Organic Compounds during Composting
Reactions and Movement of Toxic Organics in Soil
Uptake by Plants and Potential Entry into the Food Chain
Conclusion
References

Pathogens
Introduction
Primary Pathogens in Wastes and Compost
Worker Health Risks of Solid Waste Composting
The Effect of Composting on Pathogen Destruction
Survival of Pathogens in Soils and on Plants
Conclusions
References

Bioaerosols
Introduction
Aspergillus Fumigatus
Morphology
Pathogenicity
Occurrence in the Environment
Occurrence in and Around Composting Facilities
Dickerson, Maryland
Site II, Maryland
Westbrook, Maine
Windsor, Ontario
Hampton Roads, Virginia
Beltsville, Maryland
Camden, New Jersey
Yard Waste Composting Facilities
MSW Composting Facility
Other Studies
Endotoxin and Organic Dusts
Conclusions
References

Odors and Volatile Organic Compounds
Introduction
Odorous Compounds and Odors Emitted by Composting Facilities
Volatile Organic Compounds
Air Dispersion Modeling for Composting Facilities
Regulatory Models
Model Parameters
Gassian Dispersion and Dispersion Parameters
Treatment of Terrain
Reliability of Model Results
Peak-to-Mean Conversion for Assessing Odor Impacts
Examples of Dispersion Modeling for Composting Facilities
Conclusion
References

Soil Physical and Chemical Manifestations
Introduction
Effect of Compost Application on Soil Physical Properties
Soil Structure
Bulk Density
Soil Strength
Water Relations-Soil Water Retention and Available Water to Plants
Runoff and Soil Erosion
Soil Temperature
Effect of Compost Application on Soil Chemical Properties
Cation Exchange Capacity
Soil pH
Electrical Conductivity (EC)
Nitrogen Availability in Soil
Nitrogen Leaching
Summary
References

Utilization of Compost
Introduction
Horticulture
Ornamental
Flowering and House Plants
Sod Production and Turf Grass Establishment
Agricultural

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