Providing a vital link between nanotechnology and conductive polymers, this book covers advances in topics of this interdisciplinary area. In each chapter, there is a discussion of current research issues while reviewing the background of the topic. The selection of topics and contributors from around the globe make this text an outstanding resource for researchers involved in the field of nanomaterials or polymer materials design. The book is divided into three sections: From Conductive Polymers to Nanotechnology, Synthesis and Characterization, and Applications.
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Ali Eftekhari is Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Avicenna Institute of Technology in Cleveland (USA). He received his PhD at Trinity College (Ireland). From 2000 to 2002, he was a researcher at Nirvan Co. (USA) working on an environmental project under support of former Vice-President Al Gore. From 2002 to 2004, Professor Eftekhari was senior researcher at KICR (USA), working on a joint corporate project based in United States and Iran. For the next two years, he was Head of the Electrochemistry Division at the Materials and Energy Research Center in Iran. Since 2007, Ali Eftekhari has been Professor of Chemistry and Director of Avicenna Institute of Technology. He is the editor of four books including Nanostructured Materials in Electrochemistry (Wiley) and editor of the book Boltzmann Philosophy of Science. Professor Eftekhari is Editor of the Journal of Nanomaterials and has been chairman or on the Editorial Advisory Boards of several conferences. His research interests include electrochemistry, nanoscience and nanotechnology, statistical physics, condensed matter physics, philosophy, the history of science, management and science policy.
List of Contributors.
1 History of Conductive Polymers (J. Campbell Scott).
1.2 Archeology and Prehistory.
1.3 The Dawn of the Modern Era.
1.4 The Materials Revolution.
1.5 Concluding Remarks.
2 Polyaniline Nanostructures (Gordana Ciric-Marjanovic).
2.3 Structure and Properties.
2.4 Processing and Applications.
2.5 Conclusions and Outlook.
3 Nanoscale Inhomogeneity of Conducting-Polymer-Based Materials (Alain Pailleret and Oleg Semenikhin).
3.1 Introduction: Inhomogeneity and Nanostructured Materials.
3.2 Direct Local Measurements of Nanoscale Inhomogeneity of Conducting and Semiconducting Polymers.
3.3 In-situ Studies of Conducting and Semiconducting Polymers: Electrochemical Atomic Force Microscopy (EC-AFM) and Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (EC-STM).
3.4 The Origin of the Nanoscale Inhomogeneity of Conducting and Semiconducting Polymers.
4 Nanostructured Conductive Polymers by Electrospinning (Ioannis S. Chronakis).
4.1 Introduction to Electrospinning Technology.
4.2 Electrospinning Processing.
4.3 Electrospinning Processing Parameters: Control of the Nanofiber Morphology.
4.4 Nanostructured Conductive Polymers by Electrospinning.
4.5 Applications of Electrospun Nanostructrured Conductive Polymers.
5 Composites Based on Conducting Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes (M. Baibarac, I. Baltog and S. Lefrant).
5.2 Carbon Nanotubes.
5.3 Synthesis of Composites Based on Conducting Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes.
5.4 Vibrational Properties of Composites Based on Conducting Polymers and Carbon Nanotubes.
6 Inorganic-Based Nanocomposites of Conductive Polymers (Rabin Bissessur).
6.3 V2O5 Systems.
6.6 Layered Phosphates and Phosphonates.
6.7 Layered Rutiles.
6.8 Layered Perovskites.
6.9 Layered Titanates.
6.10 Graphite Oxide.
7 Metallic-Based Nanocomposites of Conductive Polymers (Vessela Tsakova).
7.2 Oxidative Polymerization Combined with Metal-Ions Reduction (One-Pot Synthesis).
7.3 Nanocomposite Formation by Means of Pre-Synthesized Metal Nanoparticles.
7.4 Metal Electrodeposition in Pre-Synthesized CPs.
7.5 Chemical Reduction of Metal Ions in Pre-Polymerized CP Suspensions or Layers.
7.6 Metallic Based CP Composites for Electrocatalytic and Electroanalytic Applications.
List of Acronyms.
8 Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Conducting Polymers (Gustavo M. do Nascimento and Marcelo A. de Souza).
8.1 Synthetic Metals.
8.2 Nanostructured Conducting Polymers.
8.3 Spectroscopic Techniques.
8.4 Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Conducting Polymers.
8.5 Concluding Remarks.
9 Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Conductive Polymers (Edgar Ap. Sanches, Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr and Fabio de Lima Leite).
9.2 AFM Fundamentals and Applications.
9.3 Concluding Remarks.
10 Single Conducting-Polymer Nanowires (Yixuan Chen and Yi Luo).
10.2 Fabrication of Single Conducting-Polymer Nanowires (CPNWs).
10.3 Transport Properties and Electrical Characterization.
10.4 Application of Single Conducting Polymer Nanowires (CPNWs).
10.5 Summary and Outlook.
11 Conductive Polymer Micro- and Nano Containers (Jiyong Huang and Zhixiang Wei).
11.1 Structures of Micro- and Nanocontainers.
11.2 Preparation Method and Formation Mechanism.
11.3 Properties and Applications of Micro- and Nanocontainers.
12 Magnetic and Electron Transport Behaviors of Conductive-Polymer Nanocomposites (Zhanhu Guo, Suying Wei, David Cocke and Di Zhang).
12.2 Magnetic Polymer Nanocomposite Preparation.
12.3 Physicochemical Property Characterization.
12.4 Microstructure of the Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites.
12.5 Interaction between the Nanoparticles and the Conductive-Polymer Matrix.
12.6 Magnetic Properties of Conductive-Polymer Nanocomposites.
12.7 Electron Transport in Conductive-Polymer Nanocomposites.
12.8 Giant Magnetoresistance in Conductive-Polymer Nanocomposites.
13 Charge Transfer and Charge Separation in Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells (Ian A. Howard, Neil C. Greenham, Agnese Abrusci, Richard H. Friend and Sebastian Westenhoff).
13.2 Charge Transfer in Conjugated Polymers.
13.3 Charge Generation and Recombination in Organic Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltages.
13.4 Conclusions and Outlook.
14 Nanostructured Conducting Polymers for (Electro)Chemical Sensors (Anthony J. Killard).
14.2 Nanowires and Nanotubes.
14.3 Nanogaps and Nanojunctions.
14.4 Nanofibres and Nanocables.
14.6 Metallic Nanoparticle/Conducting-Polymer Nanocomposites.
14.7 Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles/Conducting-Polymer Nanocomposites.
14.8 Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.
14.10 Nanoporous Templates.
14.11 Application Summaries.
15 Nanostructural Aspects of Conducting-Polymer Actuators (Paul A. Kilmartin and Jadranka Travas-Sejdic).
15.2 Mechanism and Modes of Actuation.
15.3 Modelling Mechanical Performance and Developing Device Applications.
15.4 Effect of Morphology and Nanostructure upon Actuation.
15.5 Solvent and Ion Size Effects to Achieve Higher Actuation.
15.6 Nanostructured Composite Actuators.
15.7 Prospects for Nanostructured Conducting-Polymer Actuators.
16 Electroactive Conducting Polymers for the Protection of Metals against Corrosion: from Micro- to Nanostructured Films (Pierre Camille Lacaze, Jalal Ghilane, Hyacinthe Randriamahazaka and Jean-Christophe Lacroix).
16.2 Protection Mechanisms Induced by Conducting Polymers.
16.3 Conducting-Polymer Coating Techniques for Usual Oxidizable Metals and Performances of Conducting Polymer-Based Micron-Thick Films for Protection against Corrosion.
16.4 Nanostructured Conducting-Polymer Coatings and Anticorrosion Protection.
17 Electrocatalysis by Nanostructured Conducting Polymers (Shaolin Mu and Ya Zhang).
17.2 Electrochemical Synthetic Techniques of Nanostructured Conducting Polymers.
17.3 Electrocatalysis at Nanostructured Conducting Polymer Electrodes.
18 NanostructuredConductive Polymers as Biomaterials (Rylie A. Green, Sungchul Baek, Nigel H. Lovell and Laura A. Poole-Warren).
18.2 Biomedical Applications for Conductive Polymers.
18.3 Polymer Design Considerations.
18.4 Fabrication of Nanostructured Conductive Polymers.
18.5 Polymer Characterisation.
18.6 Interfacing with Neural Tissue.
19 Nanocomposites of Polymers Made Conductive by Nanofillers (Haiping Hong, Dustin Thomas, Mark Horton, Yijiang Lu, Jing Li, Pauline Smith and Walter Roy).
19.3 Results and Discussion.
During the past three decades conducting polymers have been the subject of both fundamental and applied research due to the vast variety of possible applications. Displaying both semiconductor-like, and metallic-like properties, these novel smart materials can function as energy storage devices in battery technology, microelectronics, electrochromic display devices, and as chemical and electrochemical sensors. They also have the ability to mimic biological systems and can be used as components of artificial nerves and muscles, electronic noses and tongues, and drug-release/delivery systems.
Providing the vital link between nanotechnology and conductive polymers, Nanostructured Conducting Polymers covers advances in this interdisciplinary area. The chapters discuss current research issues, as well as providing necessary background material, and are divided into three sections:
* From Conductive Polymers to Nanotechnology
* Synthesis and Characterization
It demonstrates that in order to meet the requirements of new commercial devices, control of conductive polymers at the nanoscale is needed.
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