Land Application of Biosolids

Process Design Manual
 
 
CRC Press Inc
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 20. Januar 1997
 
  • Buch
  • |
  • Softcover
  • |
  • 310 Seiten
978-1-56676-527-5 (ISBN)
 
Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage is performed in an environmentally safe and cost-effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by spreading the sewage sludge on the soil surface, incorporating or injecting the sewage sludge into soil, or spraying the sewage sludge. Because sewage sludge disposal practices (e.g., landfilling) are becoming less available and more costly, and because of the increasing desire to beneficially reuse waste residuals whenever possible, land application is increasingly chosen as a sewage sludge use or disposal practice. Approximately 33 percent of the 5.4 million dry metric tons of sewage sludge generated annually in the United States at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) is land applied. Of the sewage sludge that is land applied, approximately 67 percent is land applied on agricultural lands, 3 percent on forest lands, approximately 9 percent on reclamation sites, and 9 percent on public contact sites; 12 percent is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land. In addition, approximately 8.6 billion gallons of domestic sewage is generated annually. Land application of sewage sludge has been practiced in many countries for centuries so that the nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) and organic matter in sewage sludge can be beneficially used to grow crops or other vegetation. Over the years, land application has been increasingly managed to protect human health and the environment from various potentially harmful constituents typically found in sewage sludge, such as bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; metals (e.g., cadmium and lead); toxic organic chemicals (e.g., PCBs); and nutrients (e.g., nitrogen as nitrate). Management of the land application of sewage has included regulatory measures; voluntary and mandatory pretreatment of wastewater and/or sludge by industry to improve quality (e.g., lower pollutant levels); and use of good management practices at land application sites (e.g., buffer zones, slope restrictions). Land Application of Biosolids: Process Design Manual covers the advantages, limitations and operational standards for common land application of biosolids practices, including uses on agricultural lands, forest lands, reclamation sites, and public contact and private use sites. This process design manual will help you use this cost-effective and environmentally safe biosolids disposal method to recycle, fertilize and condition agricultural, forest and reclamation soils. Land Application of Biosolids: Process Design Manual will be useful to people in all aspects of the wastewater industry.
  • Englisch
  • Bosa Roca
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Inc
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • |
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Höhe: 279 mm
  • |
  • Breite: 216 mm
  • 689 gr
978-1-56676-527-5 (9781566765275)
1566765277 (1566765277)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Introduction * Overview * Sewage Sludge Regulations * Objectives of Manual * Scope of Manual Overview of Sewage Sludge Land Application Practices * Introduction * Application to Agricultural Lands * Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Agricultural Land Application - Limitations of Agricultural Land Application * Application to Forest Lands * Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Forest Land Application - Limitations of Forest Land Application * Application at Reclamation Sites * Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Land Application at Reclamation Sites - Limitations of Land Application at Reclamation Sites * Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens * Purpose and Definition - Advantages of Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens - Limitations of Land Application at Public Contact Sites, Lawns, and Home Gardens * References Overview of the Part 503 Regulatory Requirements for Land Application of Sewage Sludge * General * Pollutant Limits * Ceiling Concentration Limits - Pollutant Concentration Limits - Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rates (CPLRs) - Annual Pollutant Loading Rates (APLRs) - Why Organic Pollutants Were Not Included in Part 503 * Manual Practices * Operation Standards for Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction * Pathogen Reduction Requirements - Vector Attraction Reduction Requirements * Frequency of Monitoring * Recordkeeping and Reporting * Sewage Sludge Quality and the Part 503 Requirements * Exceptional Quality (EQ) Sewage Sludge - Pollutant Concentration (PC) Sewage Sludge - Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate (CPLR) Sewage Sludge - Annual Pollutant Loading Rate (APLR) Sewage Sludge * References Characteristics of Sewage Sludge * Introduction * Sewage Sludge Quality * Total Solids Content * Volatile Solids Content * pH * Organic Matter * Pathogens * Nutrients * Nitrogen - Phosphorus, Potassium, and Other Nutrients * Metals * Organic Chemicals * Hazardous Pollutants (If Any) * Types of Sewage Sludge * Primary Sewage Sludge - Secondary Sewage Sludge - Tertiary Sewage Sludge - Domestic Septage * Effects of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Processes on Sewage Sludge Characteristics * Effects of Pretreatment and Pollution Prevention Programs on Sewage Sludge Characteristics * References Site Evaluation and Selection Process * General * Part 503 Requirements * Protection of Surface Water and Wetlands - Protection of Threatened and Endangered Species - Site Restrictions * Planning and Selection Process * Preliminary Planning * Institutional and Regulatory Framework - Public Participation - Preliminary Land Area Requirements - Sewage Sludge Transport Assessment * Phase I Site Evaluation and Site Screening * Existing Information Sources - Land Use and Availability - Physical Characteristics of Potential Sites - Site Screening * Phase II Site Evaluation: Field Investigation * Selection of Land Application Practice * Final Site Selection * Preliminary Cost Analysis - Final Site Selection * Site Selection Example * City Characteristics - Sewage Sludge and Soil Characteristics - Regulations Considered - Public Acceptance - Preliminary Feasibility Assessment - Estimate Land Area Required - Eliminate Unsuitable Areas - Identify Suitable Areas - Phase II Site Survey and Field Investigation - Cost Analysis - Final Site Selection * References Phase II Site Evaluation * General * Preliminary Field Site Survey * Site-Specific Field Investigations * Base Map Preparation - Field Checking of Surface Features and Marking Buffer Zones on the Base Map - Identifying Topographic Limitations - Field Soil Survey - Delineation of Floodplains and Wetlands - Site Hydrogeology * Soil Sampling and Analysis to Determine Agronomic Rates * Part 503 Definition of Agronomic Rate - Soil Sampling * Special Considerations for Reclamation Sites * Sampling and Analysis of Disturbed Soils * References Process Design for Agricultural Land Application Sites * General * Regulatory Requirements and Other Consid

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